Before telling you the fascinating story of what humans understand about black hole winds and galaxies and their cosmic energy exchange, let me try to explain each part of the story; and let me start with the main characters:
Black holes went from being a purely mathematical abstract in a few human minds, to something routinely observed and monitored by humans, day by day, in the local and distant Universe — in just a couple of centuries! And it’s been only a couple of decades since humans realized that a supermassive black hole, with a mass of about three or four millions the mass of our star the Sun, resides at the center of the galaxy where they all live in: the Milky Way.
Actually, nowadays humans suspect that a supermassive black hole might reside at the center of every galaxy, and might be intimately related to her formation and evolution. This would make black holes fundamental cosmic players. But first of all: what is a black hole?